Independent Workplace Investigations
Independent Workplace Investigations have been experiencing exponential growth. They are carried out for a range of different circumstances.
For example, a Board might need serious misconduct complaints about a
director/shareholder investigated independently; sometimes just as matter of good corporate governance, or to perhaps help counter potential
allegations of unfair prejudice where the director concerned is also a shareholder and is subject to good leaver/bad leaver provisions in a shareholder’s agreement.
In addition, Independent Workplace Investigations are commonly undertaken when an organisation receives a serious discrimination, bullying, or whistleblowing complaint made by an employee which could result in both adverse publicity, and high value litigation.
For regulated firms having complaints dealt with both expeditiously and
externally can help prevent a regulator from commencing a formal
An important consideration with regards to managing an investigation either in-house, or externally is the business will not be able to claim legal privilege for most aspects of the investigation. Even if it is carried out by in-house lawyers there are limits as to the extent which legal advice privilege can be claimed.
Businesses need to be mindful that any work carried out by auditors, forensic accountants will generally not be privileged.
So, the starting point for any independent investigation is for the organisation to define which employees will be “the client” client for the purposes of communicating with external lawyers and accessing confidential documents. That group is likely to be restricted to just a few directors and key personnel. By doing so it helps to control the dissemination of advice and help protect legal advice privilege.
Instructing private investigators needs to be undertaken with extreme
caution. Done without good reason, and without appropriate authorisations may lead employers to fall foul both of the law and breach the Information
Depending on the nature of an investigation organisations will need to
consider which employees need be told about it. In some instances where the matter is serious and potentially extremely newsworthy, then the entire
organisation may need to be forewarned if only to head off rumour and speculation; remind staff of their duty of confidentiality, and to preserve documents.
In terms of interviewing employees, thought needs to be given about who to
interview. As a general rule it is usually best to start with the most junior
employees and then move up the hierarchy. How much information should an interviewee be given in advance of any meeting. Some employees are often reticent about being interviewed unless they are provided with all the questions in advance. What documents will these employees need to refer to, and how far in advance should any information be provided especially where documents are sensitive.
With regards to preparing ad concluding an investigation report it is worth thinking about whether to have initial conversations first about potential findings before any final non-privileged document is created. The report should only be shared with individuals who are properly to be regarded as the client. If it does need to be shared with third parties then think about securing agreement as to the limited waiver of privilege.